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Wigwam Socks > SHOP Wigwam Socks > Wigwam Sock Terms

Wigwam Sock Terms

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Wigwam Socks ...SOCK LENGTHS

Odor Guard:
An antimicrobial treatment that protects the sock against bacteria which cause foot odor and athlete’s foot. Odor Guard is guaranteed to fight odor, and is built to last.
Sized Socks:
A sock knit to a number of specific sizes (not size ranges) that correlates (although not directly) with a person’s shoe size. Socks sized in this manner are sized by numbers, ranging from 9 to 14. Each number represents a defined number of inches in a specified manner of measuring the foot of the sock. Although it is today almost unheard of, socks at one time were made in half sizes. Rarely are socks available today in discrete sizes.
Stretch Sock:
A sock knit, in part, with yarns that have the ability to stretch and recover. This enables the sock to fit a range of foot sizes.
Wicking, or Moisture-Wicking:
The ability of a yarn or fabric to transport moisture away from the skin.
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Wigwam Socks ...SOCK ANATOMY

“Y” Heel Pocket: :
A method of knitting an extended heel pocket to create an anatomically correct fit.
Achilles Cradle:
A dense reinforced cushion that appears above the heel on the back of the leg to cushion and protect the Achilles tendon area and to reduce fabric wear in that area.
Cuff: :
The cuff is important to the appearance of a sock and its functionality. A welt-cuff is a double layer of knit fabric at the top of the leg. A conventional cuff is knit with a single layer of fabric from the top down. You can see where the knitting of the conventional cuff starts since there is a short tail of yarn.
Fitted Heel and Toe:
A sock that has a knit-in or “true” heel pocket and a reciprocated (knit-in) toe pocket for a better, more natural fit. Most socks are made in this manner today.
Heel Gore:
When the heel is formed the line that runs diagonally through the heel is formed by stitches in the sock that are knit and other stitches that are held in position where knitting doesn’t occur. This line is called the heel gore or gore line. Socks having a “Y” shaped gore line tend to fit better than the standard single gore. It is also important to note that the heel is the portion of the socks subject to the greatest amount of abrasion that is caused by rubbing against the interior of the heel of the shoe. For this reason heels are often reinforced with an extra end of yarn and/or abrasion resistant yarns.
High Heel Splice:
An area of knit fabric reinforcement that falls above the heel pocket, and typically rises above the top of the shoe.
Jersey Instep:
A band of jersey fabric that crosses the top of the foot between the leg and instep (just opposite of the heel gore) to reduce the fabric volume and provide a better fit.
Mock Rib Leg:
The appearance of a true rib, achieved in jersey fabric by using elastic.
Morpul Leg or Top:
The appearance of a true rib in jersey fabric, but having extreme elasticity.
Reinforced (Ankle, Heel, or Toe):
To strengthen a high-stress area of the sock (usually the heel, toe or ankle) with a durable yarn such as Nylon or Polypropylene.
Toe Pocket:
The toe pocket in a sock allows for better fit and comfort. The toe of the sock is formed based on the same principal of knitting, as is the heel of the sock. Upon completion of the toe a series of preparation stitches are knit for closing the toe. This is where the sock finishes knitting, leaving an opening at this end of the sock. This opening is either closed with a sewing machine, looping machine on the inside or the outside of the fabric, or it is closed on the knitting machine that does a very precise job of running an end of yarn through each of the opposing stitches on each side of the sock. This process of closing the toe on the machine is called looping or linking and was performed many years ago with a separate hand operation. Toes also tend to have more abrasion than the instep or sole of the sock and like the heel are often reinforced with an extra end of yarn and/or use abrasion resistant yarns.
Toe Seam or Toe Closure:
Socks are knit on circular machines. Generally, but not always, the knitting starts at the top of the leg and ends after the toe is formed. The open circular area where the toe is formed has historically been closed with a sewing machine or a looping machine. Today sock knitting machines are being built that are able to close the toe of the sock on the knitting machine. These toe closures are seamless and feel smooth.
True Heel and Toe Pocket:
See Fitted Heel and Toe.
True Rib Leg, Cuff, Top or Instep (1x1, 2x2, 3x1, 4x2, 5x2, etc.):
A vertical pattern of alternating raised and lowered stitches in the leg, cuff, top or instep of a sock. The numerals represent the number of stitches in the raised part of the rib by the number of stitches in the recessed part of the rib.
Turned Cuff:
The top of the sock is designed to be folded down when worn, usually just above the ankle.
The cuff is important to the appearance of a sock and its functionality. A welt-cuff top is a double layer of knit fabric at the top of the leg. A conventional cuff is knit with single layer of fabric from the top down. You can see where the knitting of the conventional cuff starts since there is a short tail of yarn.
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Boot Length:
A typical length of a sock that falls higher than the tops of taller outdoor and hiking boots, typically 12” to 13” in height, although they can be as long as 14” to 15” (Tall Boot Length) or as short as 11” (Shorter Boot-Top Length).
Crew Length:
A sock that extends beyond ankle length, but not beyond the largest part of the calf. Typically 9” to 12” in length.
A short length sock that falls below the ankle bone. Usually 3” to 4” in length.
An ultra low-cut sock. Similar to a low-cut, but typically less than 3” in length. Ideally, it is cut low enough that it is totally hidden from view when worn inside footwear.
Over-the-Calf Length:
A sock that extends above the largest part of the calf. Typically 15” or longer.
Push-Down Length:
A mid calf length, typically around 14” to allow for the sock to be pushed down or “slouched” to give a bunched look to the fabric above the ankle.
Quarter Length:
A short crew sock, similar in length to a mid-crew sock. Typically 4” to 7” in length.
Tube Sock:
A sock that is knit in the shape of a tube, having no knit-in heel pocket.
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Wigwam Socks ...YARNS

2-Ply, 3-Ply, or 4-Ply Yarn:
When 2 or more ends or plies of single yarns are combined or twisted together to form a heavier yarn. A multi plied yarn with different colored ends is referred to as a marled yarn.
Core Yarn:
Yarn that is spun with its fibers wrapped around another end of yarn already spun.
Heathered Yarns:
Yarns that have various colored fibers blended together to give a soft tweed appearance.
Intimate Blend:
The combining of two or more types of fibers into a single end of yarn to achieve improved performance, certain styling or to meet a price point if one fiber is less expensive than the other.
A multi-colored yarn in which component plies may be of different colors.
Ragg Wool:
A traditional outdoor, marled wool yarn, usually in a natural or brown twist color.
Ragg Yarn:
Customarily a reference to a relatively heavy yarn that originated in Norway in either a 2-Ply, 3-Ply or 4-Ply construction with one end being Black or Brown and the others being natural.
Shrink Treated:
Processing wool fiber, yarn or wool fabric to prevent its shrinkage minimizing the chance for shrinkage in subsequent washings.
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Filet Stitch:
A method of achieving a pattern or texture, and at the same time improving breathability.
The process of knitting an intricate pattern.
Jersey (Sole, Leg, Instep or Foot Bottom):
A lightweight non-ribbed, non-cushioned, plain knit fabric.
Knit Fabric:
A series of interconnected loops. There are various configurations of these interconnected loops. The simplest and most ordinary is a flat knit fabric called jersey.
Links-Links, or Links Stitching:
Selectively knitting stitches to be raised or recessed in order to create a decorative patterned fabric.
Mesh or Mesh Pique:
Filet stitches forming a fabric to facilitate the evaporation of moisture as well as to create a textured appearance.
Ottoman Flex-Stitch:
A pattern that utilizes pearl stitching to create a flexible textured fabric.
Sandwich Plaited:
The method of knitting that places the softer or more fashionable fabrics to both the inside and the outside of the binder yarn. Sandwich plaiting yields a thicker, more plush fabric.
Terry Cushioning:
Knitting all (fully cushioned) or part of a sock (foot or sole only) with a secondary (terry) loop to create extra cushioning in the areas where the extra yarn loops are present.
A knitted stitch where the loop formed has two instead of one end of yarn to form it. This stitch increases the bulk and stretch of fabric.
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